Nowadays, toothpaste tablets are more and more popular among environmentalists due to its recyclable package, which minimize the damage to the environment. However, how do we choose a toothpaste tablet which is not only environmental friendly but also good for our personal use? Personally, I care two elements during choosing the suitable toothpaste tablets: 1. Cleaning effect 2. Caries prevention.  

In order to satisfy my requirements, I do some research on the toothpaste ingredients.

Based on the ingredients, I will test the toothpaste tablets in the market one by one in order to find the suitable toothpaste tablets for myself.

Basic elements and functional element commonly used in toothpaste are listed as below.

Basic Elements

1. Friction agent:

With the mechanical friction of toothbrushes, friction agent helps clean and polish the tooth surface, which also help remove pigmentation and dental plaque.

  • Calcium carbonate: Strong friction which may damage the tooth surface
  • Hydrated silica: Moderate friction with good taste
  • Calcium hydrogen phosphate: Moderate friction with good taste
  • Aluminum hydroxide
  • Calcium pyrophosphate
  • Sodium bicarbonate/Baking soda: Moderate friction with good taste

2. Surface Active Agent:

Reduce surface tension, penetrate and dissolute surface sediment and pigment, emulsify debris, wet foaming.

  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate SLS, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate SDS: High irritation
  • Sodium Lauroyl Ammonia SLA
  • Coconut amidopropyl betaine
  • Tridecanol polyether-9
  • Polyglycerol Laurate
  • PEG-20 Hydrogenated castor oil
  • Stearyl Alcohol Polyether-5

3. Adhesive, Thickening agent, Stabilizer

Prevent solid-liquid separation of the paste during storage, maintain the paste shape and homogeneity.

  • Cellulose gum: Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; Sodium carboxyethyl cellulose
  • Microcrystalline cellulose
  • Xanthan gum
  • Kapom
  • Poloxamer
  • Aluminum magnesium silicate
  • Sodium polyacrylate
  • Sodium alginate

4. Moisturizer

Keep moist to prevent the paste from hardening when in contact with air.

  • Sorbitol
  • Polyethylene glycol
  • Propylene glycol
  • Glycerol

5. Preservative

Prevent bacterial growth and prolong storage life.

  • Sodium benzoate
  • Potassium sorbate
  • Hydroxybenzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate
  • Hydroxypropyl ester
  • Hydroxyphenyl butyl ester
  • Benzyl alcohol
  • Benzalkonium chloride
  • Trichlorohydroxyphenyl ether copolymer
  • Allantoin

6. Aromatics

increase aroma, improve taste and taste.

  • Food flavor
  • Menthol, peppermint extract
  • Cardamom oil
  • Limonene

7. Sweetener

Increase sweetness, improve taste, and will not cause dental caries.

  • Saccharin sodium
  • Xylitol
  • Erythritol
  • Sucralose, galactose
  • Stevioside, Stevia
  • Mannitol
  • Sodium chloride

Functional Elements

1. Caries Prevention

  • Fluoride: sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, stannous fluoride: By adding fluoride, it promotes tooth remineralization, reduce enamel demineralization and inhibit acid producing bacteria metabolism. If the content of soluble fluorine exceeds 0.05%, it will have anti caries effect
  • Casein phosphopeptide(CPP): binds calcium ions from food to dental caries to reduce demineralization of enamel
  • Hydroxyapatite: the same composition as enamel, it can remineralize enamel caries in the early stage of demineralization
  • Calcium glycerophosphate: it improves acid resistance of enamel
  • Arginine: it can promote the remineralization of enamel caries surface and subsurface, and can be used to prevent early caries

2. Inhibit dental plaque or reduce gingival inflammation

  • Trichlorohydroxyphenyl ether copolymer PVM/MA: Antiseptic
  • Triclosan, dichlorophenoxychlorophenol: Antibacterial agents, possibly carcinogenic
  • Zinc citrate: prevent plaque and inhibit dental calculus
  • Tocopherol: anti-inflammatory, promoting gingival microcirculation, promoting ulcer healing and anti-aging.
  • Allantoin: promote cell growth, accelerate healing of gingivitis and oral ulcer
  • Zanthoxylin: anesthesia, excitement, bacteriostasis, analgesia
  • Eugenol: antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, eliminate oral odor
  • Tranexamic acid or clotting acid: prescription drugs, used for various hemorrhagic diseases and auxiliary treatment for gingival bleeding
  • Cetylpyridinium chloride: a prescription drug that inhibits plaque activity and may cause tooth coloring
  • Dimethyl glycyrrhizinate: anti inflammation, anti allergy, anti ulcer, promoting epithelial cell tissue regeneration
  • Polyquaternary ammonium salt: broad spectrum antibacterial agent

3. Anti Sensitive

Analgesic component

  • Potassium nitrate (soluble potassium salt): acts on dental pulp nerve, inhibits nerve pain signal transmission, and alleviates pain sensation caused by external stimulation.
  • Paeonol: acts on the dental pulp nerve, reduces reaction of the dental pulp nerve to dentin hypersensitivity so as to relieve pain and sedation.

Reparative component

  • Strontium chloride (strontium salts): reacts with dentin to produce minerals, blocks exposed dentin tubules, blocks external stimuli, and reduces the permeability of tooth hard tissues. The total strontium content does not exceed 3.5%, and it cannot be used in children’s toothpaste.
  • Stannous salts, sodium calcium phosphosilicate: Blocking exposed dentin tubules, blocking external stimuli, and reducing dentin sensitivity
  • Hydroxyapatite: HAP has the same composition as enamel, and has remineralization effect on enamel caries in the early stage of demineralization

4. Whitening Component

Colorants and pigments

improve the appearance of toothpaste, enhance visual sense, deposit, attach to the tooth surface, change the light transmission characteristics of the tooth surface, and make the tooth surface brighter and white

Chemical whitening agent

  • Pyrophosphates: sodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate: Remove pigment absorption, soften stain, clean and whiten
  • Sodium phytate (phytic acid, phytates): Complex with tartar components to avoid or reduce dental calculus and make tartar separate from the tooth surface.
  • Sodium tripolyphosphate: Relieve the regeneration of dental calculus and absorb pigment
  • Sodium hexametaphosphate: Relieve the regeneration of dental calculus and absorb pigment.
  • Hydrogen peroxide: bleach teeth through oxidation, which may damage cells and cause lesions