Medical grade Beta-tricalcium phosphate is a kind of amorphous white powder. It is odorless and stable in air which is almost insoluble in cold water. Beta-tricalcium phosphate is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. It is insoluble in ethanol and acetone.
Medical grade Beta-tricalcium or β-TCP has great biological compatibility. Once implanted into human body, the degradation will occur under physiological conditions and provide rich Ca and P for the formation of new bone. EPRUI beta TCP can be used as ideal material for bone filling, bone repair and bone graft.
Tricalcium phosphate has similar composition (Ca:P=1.5) to the inorganic components in biological bone. Therefore, it has good biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability. Medical grade beta TCP, as biomaterials of bone substitutes, has been given close attention in the biomedical industry since 1991. It is non-toxic, non-local irritant, does not cause hemolysis or coagulation, and does not cause mutation or cancer. It is biodegradable or bioabsorbable bioactive material with good biocompatibility, bone conduction and even osteoinduction function.
What’s more, the degraded Ca and P enter the living circulatory system to form new bone, so medical beta TCP can be used as ideal material for bone filling, bone repair and bone graft.
When medical grade beta TCP is implanted into human body, it can be degraded and absorbed in body fluids. Calcium and phosphorus are absorbed by the body fluid and enter the human circulatory system. After a certain period of time, the medical β-TCP implanted in the body gradually dissolves and disappears, forming new bones.
A large number of experimental studies have proven that medical grade beta tricalcium phosphate has no adverse effects on bone marrow hematopoietic function, no rejection reactions, no acute toxicity reactions, and no allergies. Therefore, medical grade β-TCP can be widely used in joint and spine fusion, limb trauma, oral and maxillofacial surgery, cardiovascular surgery, and filling of periodontal cavity. With continuous research on medical β-TCP, its application forms have also diversified, and it has shown better performance in clinical medicine. Besides, medical β-TCP can be used to prepare sintered bioceramics, and can also be used as a carrier for drugs such as antibiotics and growth factors.
In addition, β-TCP is also widely used clinically in hip and knee joints, artificial tooth roots, dental palate elevation and reinforcement, maxillofacial and middle ear ossicular reconstruction.
Both medical HAP and beta TCP can serve as bone substitutes that work by providing a scaffold for vascular ingrowth, which then leads to bone apposition. Medical HAP is superior in promotion of early bone regeneration when compared with medical beta TCP while medical beta TCP is more biodegradable.
There are two types of TCP crystal phase structure: high temperature type alpha phase and low temperature type beta phase. The crystal of alpha phase is monoclinic and the density is 2.869 / cm3, and the morphology of beta phase is hexahedron and its density is 3.079 / cm3. The phase transition temperature of β-TCP to alpha-TCP is 1120 ～ 1160 ℃.
At present, the research and application of bioactive ceramic materials generally goes toβmedical beta-TCP instead of alpha TCP.
The main reasons are as follows:
① The solubility of a-TCP is too large, and it degrades too quickly after being implanted into the human body, resulting in the artificial bone material not functioning well.
② When the temperature rises and the TCP changes from beta phase to alpha phase, the volume will increase, which will cause the ceramic to expand and crack, thereby reducing its mechanical properties
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